Agency 4: Health and Nutrition

20 min read

The Health and Nutrition Agency is the fourth agency in the community. The agency is tasked with facilitating participants’ access to quality healthcare, and food, and supporting limited partners who work in the healthcare and food production sectors.

Health and Nutrition

The agency also provides health and life insurance services to participants. The agency is tasked with building and managing the 24 multifunctional district buildings.

The agency is part of the District Bureau, which also comprises Agency 5 (Life Planning) and Agency 6 (Recreation and Arts). The District Bureau’s core responsibility is to provide services that enhance and maintain participants’ quality of life and provide avenues for social development.

The Health and Nutrition Agency receives funds in the form of investment from the Capital Bank Agency (agency 8), which it then uses for its operations, including providing chargeable services to participants. The agency also uses these funds to pay and down payments for any loans it may need to procure assets. From the revenues the agency generates, it is able to honor its obligations, such as loan repayments, as well as paying a return to the Capital Bank for capital invested. The agency is therefore geared to run on a profit, while delivering quality and affordable services.

Roles of the Health Nutrition Agency

The duties of the Health and Nutrition Agency are centered on providing participants with quality food and healthcare, as well as insurance services. However, the agency is also responsible for developing and managing the 24 district buildings. These buildings serve as offices for community public servants. They also serve as hotels, recreational facilities, schools, and hospital rooms, among other uses that they are specially designed to be applied for.

With the agency’s executive presidency providing the necessary strategic direction, which is implemented by the district (operational) presidencies, the agency performs a number of duties as detailed below, with the help of its automated system and contractors. The duties include:

  • Facilitate and promote physical and mental health
  • Facilitate the production and consumption of the right quality and quantity of food
  • Provide health and life insurance
  • Build and manage district buildings
  • Training

Mental and physical health

The Health and Nutrition Agency works with relevant players, including medical professionals, participants, and other agencies to enable the community to achieve and maintain health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. The agency aims to work with businesses and participants to positively influence the drivers of health: diet, social circumstances, access and quality of health, and regulatory framework

The community focuses on public health as the best way of providing health services. Public health is centered on preventing disease and medical conditions, prolonging life, and promoting health. The Health and Nutrition Agency achieves its objectives through some measures, including:

  • Health analytics – Advanced analytics are embedded in every aspect of a participant’s life. The agency’s health information management system analyses blood pressure, and blood sugar, in real time. The system also has tools for urinalysis, stool analytics, and weight measurement. For instance, when a participant sits on a toilet bowl, a smart system can determine their age, blood pressure, and heart rate, and conduct a thorough analysis of body fluids and other waste. This greatly helps in catching illnesses before they even develop and alerting the relevant parties. Imaging people in their daily activities, while taking extra steps to protect their identity enables the system to catch a fall before it happens, and look out for strokes and heart attacks, among other important preventive measures.((The community is extensively mapped and covered with high-definition cameras, which show every angle of the building, without infringing on privacy. For instance, special cameras with AI technology can easily detect falls before they happen, and alert other technological aids (such as robots) to prevent them. By analyzing data on human waste, body movement, and posture, the technology can diagnose cancer, stroke, and other illnesses that need to be discovered early to become treatable.))  
  • Highly-qualified personnel – The agency works with other agencies, such as Human Relations, to ensure a balanced supply of health practitioners in all fields. Once they join or qualify, the agency provides the right framework through which these professionals can continually learn to improve their expertise. The agency also champions the application of evidence-based practice, such that participants receive treatment using the latest knowledge in an area. For instance, new evidence suggests that after bowel cancer surgery, many patients need not undergo chemotherapy. A study has found that the surgery is effective in removing the cancer from the body. Such new knowledge would help participants who have already been operated on.
  • Advanced and accessible health services – Every hub in the community has an emergency room (ER), to which patients go for regular checkups as the system may advise, or to seek medical attention. The ER is run by medical professionals, who lease state-of-the-art equipment from the Business Operations Agency (agency 3). The proximity to quality health services significantly improves participants’ health outcomes. In most cases, patients recover at home, with the help of the necessary medical equipment and assistance as needed. In some cases, they may require intensive care. Intensive care units are also accessible in the district buildings, ad also boast highly qualified personnel and high-quality equipment and medical supplies.

Technology, advanced facilities and equipment, and medical personnel all collaborate to achieve the best health outcomes for patients under the facilitation of the Health and Nutrition Agency. The agency provides the systems through which medical personnel collaborate. It also provides a means through which the health information management system collaborates with health professionals to provide participants with medical attention as needed. The agency also works with other community agencies to provide avenues for lifetime learning to ensure medical practitioners stay on top of their game while gaining invaluable experience.

Food and nutrition

The Health and Nutrition Agency understands that food is inextricably tied to health, and by extension, to prosperity. The agency endeavors to ensure that food production is undertaken by as many people as possible, as close to the community as practical, and that people have more information about the food that they consume.

Each participant has a chance to engage in food production. The Participants have the first right to grow vegetables in their front and back yards in their apartment. In the village squares, businesses can lease space to grow more vegetables and fruits. All this means that fruit and vegetables travel a small distance from farm to fork, there is less wastage due to commercial considerations for perfection, and fewer agrochemicals are used.

In the mirrored villages, controlled environment agriculture (vertical and green farms) is practiced. This provides additional vegetables, as well as fish. In the agricultural land and pastures, other farmers rear livestock and engage in large-scale grain production. The agency works with other agencies and farmers to ensure that the community has the right quantity and variety of food needed to sustain itself. In instances where self-sufficiency is impossible, the agency works with food importers to maintain quality and cost implications for participants.

The Health and Nutrition Agency works with farmers to ensure that they engage in best practices in farming. For instance, the application of dangerous chemicals is tightly controlled by the agency through regulations, enforced by automated testing and contractors who work as monitors. Farmers are given extensive education to equip them with the skills necessary to produce healthy food.

Because food is grown by so many people, and travels small distances, it is significantly cheaper than would be the case in a normal economy where food travels large distances. Using controlled agriculture and gardens within the community, participants enjoy a greater variety of foods, which significantly improves their diets.

Food in the community undergoes significantly less processing, again due to the distance covered, and the dissemination of information on the advantages and disadvantages of processing. The agency works with food processors to ensure they apply healthy processing techniques and avoid, as much as possible, any harmful practices and substances. Mislabeling is also monitored so that participants are fully aware of what they are consuming. Participants are also educated on healthy eating, as a principal means of ensuring a healthy life and keeping disease at bay.

Life and health insurance

The Health and Nutrition Agency offers life and health insurance services to all participants. Life insurance is an agreement between the agency and a participant, whereby the agency (insurer) commits to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money upon the insured’s death, or elapsing of a specific period. The agency can also release the funds when the insured suffers a terminal or critical illness that prevents them from carrying on with life as before. The amount depends on the life of the contract and premium payments.

The agency offers catastrophic health insurance, which covers expensive treatments, usually more than $10,000. The agency’s health cover has significant deductibles – it does not cover checkups, routine medical services, and nonessential medical procedures, such as cosmetic surgery. Such medical expenses are settled by the participant out of their savings or checking accounts.

The agency keenly assesses certain characteristics of its clients to determine the payable premiums, and whether to offer health insurance at all. Age, and current health status, are some of the important considerations.

As every participant is insured, the agency has a large pool of money. It invests these resources in the Capital Bank Agency. The bank in return pays the agency an annuity on invested funds. The agency uses the annuity payments to improve its services, and in turn, pay back a return on capital investments. This ultimately means that the ultimate capital investor – the limited partner, enjoys a higher return. The annuities are also used to repay any loans the agency may have taken from the Community Bank Agency. Ultimately, insurance services will be very cheap, due to the low incidence of claims, and this unique investment model.

Building and managing the 24 district buildings

The Health and Nutrition Agency builds the 24 district buildings. These buildings are used for a wide range of purposes. Each building’s first, third, and fifth floors host offices for various community public servants. Building 5 and 17’s fourth floors are used to hold quarterly assembly meetings. When not in use by community public servants, these spaces can variously be used as offices for participants, hotel rooms, classrooms, and recreational areas.

The Health and Nutrition Agency takes loans from the Community Bank Agency (agency 7) to lease land from the Community Land and Utilities Agency and develop the buildings. It obtains down payments for this from the capital invested in the agency by the Capital Bank Agency. From the rent, it charges various agencies and participants for space, and the agency repays these loans.

The Health and Nutrition Agency engages contractors to run each floor of the district buildings. They are in charge of maintenance, cleaning, and other tasks needed to keep the buildings in good working condition. Every tenant pays for space per hour as well as a maintenance fee, which is submitted weekly to the agency. The agency pays the host 80% of the maintenance fee to the contractor maintaining the space and withholds 20% for general maintenance, deep cleaning, and similar activities that can be done monthly or quarterly. The funds are also used for repairs.


The Health and Nutrition Agency appreciates the importance of health information in preventing illness. The agency runs regular online training sessions that educate participants on growing food, the importance of proper diets, how and when to seek medical opinion, and how to look out for fellow participants, especially dependents. The agency also trains participants on its insurance services, to assist them in purchasing decisions.

The agency trains contractors who help the agency discharge some of its duties. For instance, contractors who maintain the multifunction district buildings receive extensive training so that they can help users achieve maximum value from the space they rent.

How the agency works

Background on presidencies

Every presidency in the community is a four-member entity whose members represent one of the four major demographics: married men (A), married women (B), single women (C), and single men (D). However, a president serves the whole community in their role, rather than only their own demographic. Presidents’ diversity and commitment to serve all is provided for in the community bylaws and ensures that all access services without any discrimination. These four major demographics are evenly split in ordinary society, with each group accounting for between 23 and 27% of the population, and with regular fluctuations as people’s status changes.

The community appreciates that discrimination across all social categories happens based on marital status, other social categorizations notwithstanding; married men are likelier to dominate other demographics, especially single men and single women. The community’s infrastructure promotes equal access to economic and social resources and opportunities.

The composition of the community as a whole and those who serve it in the community public service is closely monitored to prevent numerical domination, which can lead to nepotism or unequal access. Besides marital status, the recruitment to be a participant, and to serve in the public service carefully considers other social categorizations, to ensure racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual groups are well represented in the community as they are in the society in which a community operates.

These considerations inform the constitution of the community public service. The diversity in community public service, which is provided by bylaws, is aimed at creating a community that is blind to all other considerations besides service to participants. The service is therefore designed to be free of discrimination.

Executive presidency, bureau board, and demographic presidencies

The Health and Nutrition Agency is served by an executive presidency, comprised of 4 presidents from the four major demographics, which handles strategy formulation and adjustment, as well as formulating and communicating operational procedures for the agency. Additionally, the presidency also facilitates the setting up of the agency’s automated system and adjusts it as necessary to better achieve its goals.

As part of the District Bureau, the executive presidency forms a bureau board with executive presidencies serving the Life Planning and Recreation & Arts agencies. The board acts as a check and monitoring tool for individual presidents and agencies, especially when decisions have far-reaching implications for the community.

Within the bureau board, three presidents from the same demographic form a demographic presidency. There are four such presidencies in the bureau. The demographic presidency performs an advisory role to presidencies and agencies regarding a particular demographic; it does not have operational or executive authority. that cut across the three agencies. The demographic presidency also plays an important role in the mentorship and training of new presidents.

Demographic presidency ADemographic presidency BDemographic presidency CDemographic presidency D
Executive presidency, Health and Nutrition (4)4A4B4C4D
Executive presidency, Life Planning (5)5A5B5C5D
Executive presidency, Recreation and Arts (6)6A6B6C6D

District presidencies

Each of the 24 districts is served by three district presidencies. Each presidency in a district serves a specific agency in the District Bureau, such that there is a district presidency for Health and Nutrition, Life Planning, and Recreation and Arts. These district presidencies act as their agency’s operational presidencies. In this capacity, they implement the agency’s policies and strategies, as set by the executive presidency. They also report back to the executive presidency on issues that they deem need to be changed in the agency’s operations.

The three district presidencies that serve a district, each comprised of four presidents, come together to form a district board. The district board helps individual presidents in decision-making that impacts the whole district, mentorship, and orientation of incoming presidents. Three presidents on the board who serve the same demographic also form a demographic presidency. This is better illustrated in the table below, showing an example of District 1.

Married men (A)Married women (B)Single women (C)Single men (D)
District presidency, Health and Nutrition 1(4)A1(4)B1(4)C1(4)D
District presidency, Life Planning1(5)A1(5)B1(5)C1(5)D
District Presidency, Recreation, and Arts1(6)A1(6)B1(6)C1(6)D

Where: 1 – district number

(4) – agency served

A – demographic group

Limited partners and branch presidencies

Limited partners and dependents

A limited partner is the basic unit in the community. A limited person, usually above 18 years old, but sometimes as young as 16, has been admitted into the community and has invested $20,000 as partnership interest, for which they earn a return. This is regarded as one unit of partnership interest.

Over time, a limited partner can add more units of partnership interest, as their business prospers. The more partnership interest units a limited partner has, the more the return they receive from the agency.

 A dependent is a minor, or a person living with a disability, under the care of a limited partner. In some instances, a dependent may be a fit adult, who for various reasons is supported by community agencies, and assigned by contract to a limited partner.  Limited partners are responsible for any legal agreements that their dependents enter into, either with community agencies or other participants.

Together, limited partners and dependents are referred to as participants. Participants who are dependents, because they are still minors, can start a business when they reach 12 years of age. This allows them to save up and invest $20,000 into the community by their 18th birthday, and possibly as early as 16.

Limited partners and their dependents reside in apartments (village buildings). Each apartment has 4 floors, with each floor containing 16 apartments. Each floor has floor has 7 – 12 limited partners, with each limited partner having 1 – 3 dependents. Each floor therefore has around 25 residents. With four floors, each building has approximately 100 residents. An apartment building also forms a branch.

Group councils and branch presidencies

 Of the approximately 100 residents in a branch, around 40 of them are limited partners. Each group has around 10 limited partners and forms a group council. A group council is diverse, containing different social groups that are reflective of the society within which a community operates.

Additionally, a group contains members of the four main demographics: married men (A), married women (B), single women (C), and single men (D). The council meets at least quarterly and provides limited partners with a platform to interact and discuss common interest matters to their demographic within their branch. One of the members of the group council serves the group as a captain.

Four captains who serve the four groups in an apartment building (branch) form a branch presidency. A branch presidency’s membership is drawn from the four main demographics, for the purposes of representation.

Captains are responsible for recruiting limited partners into the community through their council and by extension, branch. A captain does not recruit limited partners only from their demographic. Instead, they work to ensure that their recruits are diverse, considering social categorizations, gender, and social status, in addition to demographic groups.

Captains work in concert with their fellow captains in the branch presidency, and other presidencies in a village and district to ensure that the district is as diverse as possible. They are guided by present data on how diverse their district, village, and branch are, and what needs to be focused on to improve. They are also guided by community bylaws, which expressly require diversity as shown by demographic data about a population from which the community intends to recruit limited partners.

The captain serves as a service extension of the Human Relations Agency, though they also act as an interface between participants and other community agencies. For agencies that do not have operational presidencies, such as agencies in the Economic and Public Administration Bureaus, captains come in handy in helping participants navigate the agency’s automated system and other relevant tools used by the agency to deliver services.

10 branches form a village. Each of the branch presidencies also belongs to a specific branch board. Branch boards provide an additional check and balance for captains and branch presidencies. Branches are numbered based on the village’s hub, in the direction of the breezeway one-way traffic direction.

Branches' numbering system
Numbering system for branches

A hub is formed at the intersection of breezeways between villages. Hub buildings are used for a range of commercial activities that need to be closer to residential areas, such as daycare centers, grocery stores, and emergency centers, among others.

A branch’s number determines with whom its presidency will form a branch board. Branch presidencies 1, 2, and 3 form one branch board, as do 4, 5, and 6, and 7, 8, and 9.

Four villages make a district. The last branch presidency in each village in the community (branch presidency 10) combines with three others in their district or cluster of 3 districts to form additional branch boards. The last branch presidencies in villages 1, 2, and 3 in each district make a board. The last branch presidencies in village 4 of each of the 3 districts in a cluster also form a board.

This can be illustrated as follows:

Branch pesidencies and boards

Besides belonging to a branch presidency and a board, every captain belongs to a demographic presidency of 3. A demographic presidency is made up of 3 captains within a board, and who serve the same demographic. The demographic presidency mainly serves an advisory function, safeguarding issues common to the particular demographic, and helping in mentorship and support for incoming captains.

The automated system is designed to help participants with all the help they need in matters related to various agencies. However, should they run into problems, captains assist them in navigating the system, or direct them to relevant contractors who help them at a fee.

Automated system

For most of its duties, especially those that involve interaction with participants, the Health and Nutrition Agency is assisted by an automated system. Such tasks include the search for contractors to build, and develop training modules, and to assist the agency in rolling out and maintaining its insurance services. The automated system is designed to minimize human interference in the agency’s decision-making and interactions, and thereby eliminate human error and nepotism. T

he system also leverages the information that the community handles, through big data computing and other means to aid in decision-making. The automated system helps the agency collect rent and maintenance fees. It also handles the payment of various obligations, such as loan repayments or payments to contractors who manage district buildings.


The Health and Nutrition Agency extensively works through contractors to perform some tasks. These include those that the automated system cannot handle, or in instances where participants need assistance in navigating the automated system. Before developing the 24 buildings, the agency relies on contractors to survey and prepare land. It then contracts businesses with the relevant expertise to develop and maintain buildings, among other tasks.

Contractors also set up the automated system and help in drafting policies and strategies. Contractors also play a central role in preparing training modules, and in instances where the agency needs to proactively engage participants, such as in keeping fit, growing food, and becoming acquainted with health information.

Inter-agency cooperation

The 24 community agencies form three columns of 8 agencies each. There is loose collaboration between the agencies in a column. The Health and Nutrition Agency is part of the first column.

The Health and Nutrition Agency closely collaborates with the Human Relations Agency to ensure that new participants understand the essence of growing food and healthy lifestyles. The two agencies work to embed health training in the induction process. When providing insurance services, the Health and Nutrition Agency uses information collected by the Human Relations Agency to decide whether to offer these services and at what cost.

The Community Bank Agency (agency 7) provides loans that the Health and Nutrition Agency uses to build the district buildings. The Cropland and Pastures Agency (agency 22) works with the Health and Nutrition Agency to encourage farmers to adopt proper farming techniques and to grow the right yet enough food. The Health and Nutrition Agency works with the IP Agency (agency 13) to encourage more research in food production, and to develop more productive, healthier, and versatile crops and farming methods.

The 24 agencies are organized in rows and columns. Beyond working in their bureau (row), agencies also interact extensively within their column. An overview with links to the 12 agencies in the Human and Financial Capital Department is here, and an overview with links to the 12 agencies in the Process and Property Department is here. A more detailed version of this graphic with some historic background is posted here.

Presidencies’ offices, meetings, and quarterly conferences


The Health and Nutrition Agency’s executive presidency has offices in District Building 4’s first floor, on the western side. Facing them on the eastern side are the offices for trustee presidency and Regulatory Bureau’s operational presidency serving the agency and District 4.

Trustees and the regulatory operational presidencies alternate their offices. Trustees have the offices in building 4 on Mondays and Wednesdays, while the operational presidencies use the offices on Tuesdays and Thursdays, as shown in this timetable:

Building 4/ Health and NutritionBuilding 16/ Accounting
MondayTrustee presidencyRegulatory Bureau Operational presidency
TuesdayRegulatory Bureau Operational presidencyTrustee presidency
WednesdayTrustee presidencyRegulatory Bureau Operational presidency
ThursdayRegulatory Bureau Operational presidencyTrustee presidency

The first floor’s layout is as follows, including other public servants who serve District 4.

Health and nutrition offices

Working hours and meetings

All community public servants work from Monday to Thursday, from 8:00 to 8:45 in the morning. The Health and Nutrition Agency’s executive presidency uses this time to interact with other public servants and in some instances, contractors. On Thursday, each presidency (four presidents serving A, B, C, and D) meets for a 45-minute meeting from 9:00 to 9:45 in the morning.

On the last Friday of each quarter, between 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM, each demographic presidency meets. The three-member presidency discusses common bureau matters that are of interest to the demographic they serve. On Saturday, again between 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM, the whole board meets, where the presidents present their input from the previous day’s demographic presidency meeting, and prepare for the quarterly conference. The aim is to have a cohesive presentation during the quarterly conference but tailored to specific demographic interests.

Quarterly conferences

Quarterly conferences are held on the last Sunday of each quarter, from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM, with a lunch break in between. During quarterly conferences, each demographic presidency sits together in the same row.

Quarterly conferences are held in District Buildings 5 and 17. Each building has a lower and higher assembly court. The different demographic groups use the assembly courts as follows:

BuildingAssembly courtDemographic
5Lower courtMarried men (A)
5Higher courtMarried Women (B)
17Lower courtSingle women (C)
17Higher courtSingle men (D)

Branch presidencies do not attend quarterly conferences. Instead, they follow the relevant proceedings online alongside other participants.

Each of the four assembly courts has seats for 480 presidents representing the respective demographic. In the diagram below each of the 4 courts is illustrated. The ceiling of each court has an elliptical arch that enables executive presidents, who are the only ones who make a presentation during the conference, to speak without the need to amplify their voices. The 480 seats are easily rotatable to enable presidents to face whoever is speaking.

Assembly hall

Each of the four courts has an identical arrangement and number of seats. The exact arrangement of each court can therefore be illustrated using one court, in this case, building 5’s lower court that is used by married men (A).

Conference seating

Within an assembly court, the 480 presidents are arranged in terms of demographic presidencies of 3. The District Bureau’s demographic presidency for married men (4A, 5A, and 6A) sits in the highlighted seats. Various district demographic presidencies also sit on the same row as indicated.

Demographic seating
Representations of hierarchical- and matrix-type organizations.
The structure of a hierarchical-type organization is shown on the left, and that of a matrix-type organization is shown on the right.

Some additional notes/definitions from an earlier version of this page:

  • All community agencies, including the Health and Nutrition Agency, receive the capital they need for operations from the Capital Bank. The Capital Bank in turn obtains these funds from limited partners, who invest in the community through this bank as their partnership interest. Agencies are required to pay the Capital Bank a return on its investment so that it can in turn pay the ultimate investor – limited partners – a return. This means that agencies must strive to be economically viable, running at a profit that is healthy enough to pay their obligations, and still provide high-quality and affordable services to participants.
  • There is a strong positive effect between the ability of a people to feed themselves, and their social and economic prosperity. This has been a major concern of the world in recent years, with tangible results where populations are well fed – Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America are prime examples. The community is premised on this, among other ideals (Wang, X. and K. Taniguchi. Does better nutrition enhance economic growth? The economic cost of hunger. Conference. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003).
  • Organic food production has been found to be beneficial to human health. The excessive use of pesticides has negative effects on the environment and humans. At the same time, use of antibiotics in rearing animas has been found to contribute to the increase of drug-resistant bacteria, which again has negative health implications for humans. The community will prioritize quality over quantity, to have a food production effort which is socially, environmentally and economically sustainable (Mie, A. “Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review.” Environmental health : a global access science source 16.1 (2017): 111).
  • The United States and other developed countries’ focus on quantity in food production has directly led to diminishing nutritional value in produced food. This, in turn, leads to overconsumption, as well as negative effects on soil, water, and, more importantly, human health (Sassenrath, G. “Technology, complexity and change in agricultural production systems.” Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 23.4 (2008): 285–295.
  • According to FAO, organic agriculture reduces non-renewable energy use, by decreasing the need for agrochemicals. This in turn reduces the amount of greenhouse gases agricultural produce emits into the atmosphere, further mitigating climate change fueled by these emissions (FAO. What are the environmental benefits of organic agriculture? Working Group on Organic Agriculture. 2019: FAO, 2019).
  • In advanced and newly advanced economies, the effects of agricultural extension services is well documented, especially the positive effects it has on food production. Supporting farmers with input and information improves their decision making, performance, and their ability to fund their communities. In the community, the Nutrition Agency will provide these services online, including guiding farmers on where they can get any other services from the community required to improve capacity (Ijatuyi, E., A. Omotayo and L. Mabe. “Effect of extension service(s) and socio-economic characteristics on the livelihood of Nguni cattle development project beneficiaries in North West Province: a tobit-ols regression approach.” South African Journal of Agricultural Extension (2017):
  • As was the case with Sri Lanka, absolute self-sustenance in food production does not always translate into economic prosperity and environmental sustainable agricultural practices. The community will be interested in only engaging in activities which play to its strengths, and importing what makes economic sense to (Davis, K., J. Gephart and T. Gunda. “Sustaining food self-sufficiency of a nation: The case of Sri Lankan rice production and related water and fertilizer demands.” Ambio 45.3 (2016): 302–312).
  • Increased food production and technological advances have gradually pushed more people form agriculture. The result is that a majority of the world’s population suffers from malnutrition – undernutrition, lack of micronutrients, or obesity. The shift has also had a drastically damaging effect on the environment. In the community, more people being involved in agriculture will result in more variety, therefore better nutrition and value of food (FAO. The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Rome: FAO, 2017).  
  • Food production standards aim to provide equal protection to the consumers. Additionally, they also seek to level the playing field for all those affected by the standards through equitable implementation and monitoring. All those involved are also well informed of the standards and the logic behind their application (Gardner, S. Consumers and food safety: A food industry perspective. Rome: FAO, 1993).