Agency 5: Life Planning

19 min read

The Life Planning Agency is the 5th agency in the community. The agency is concerned with assisting participants in life planning, accessing education, and providing life-long learning opportunities. The agency provides business insurance to participants’ businesses. The insurance services cover businesses from events that can significantly disrupt their ability to continue as a going concern. This includes serious supply disruptions.

The Life Planning Agency is part of the District Bureau. The other agencies in the bureau are focused on Health and Nutrition (Agency 4), and Recreation and Arts (Agency 6). The bureau works to provide participants with a high quality of life through social development. It facilitates access to quality health, nutrition, education, recreation and arts, and insurance services.

The Life Planning Agency receives funds in the form of investment from the Capital Bank Agency (agency 8). It uses these funds for its operations, including providing chargeable services to participants. The agency also uses these funds to pay and down payments for any loans it may need to procure assets. From the revenues the agency generates, it is able to honor its obligations, such as loan repayments, as well as paying a return to the Capital Bank for capital invested. The agency therefore endeavors to be profitable, while delivering quality and affordable services.

Roles of the Life Planning Agency

  • Life planning
  • Education
  • Lifelong learning
  • Business Insurance

Life Planning

The individual success of participants is essential to the success of the community as a whole.((Life planning is not an attempt to map out every aspect of a person’s life. Rather, it is a generalized guide that seeks to help a person understand their purpose in life, and what they need to do to achieve it.)) This can only be achieved through careful planning of each participant’s life, and ensuring that such plans align with what the community intends to achieve.

The process of life planning begins once a limited partner and their dependents have been admitted into the community. After their basic needs – setting up a business, receiving the necessary space, equipment, inventory, and accounts receivables, they can now move on to life planning.

Much of the life planning process is automated. Limited partners interact with the system without the intervention of captains or district presidents for life planning, unless where necessary. Life planning begins with a thorough assessment of what the participant possesses in terms of skills, training, and education. The system is based on an algorithm that considers the participant’s age, current circumstances, strengths, the community’s social and economic lay, and prospects, among other factors.((Existing apps use algorithms to help people plan their day-to-day tasks and general life goals. The life planning agency would normally use such apps for general planning before the limited partner examines the report and possibly make any revisions they see necessary to help them achieve their goals better.))

These factors are aggregated to give a comprehensive report, which by itself is not cast in stone and can be amended. The participant can change their report to a certain extent. In some cases, they may need the help of their captain or the district president for advice. Where they need specialized help, the district presidency recommends a list of consultants, from which the participant can choose whom they want to see for more help. The consultancy services are paid for by the participant.

The life planning report issued by the system, and probably amended by the participant, members of the community public service, or a consultant can now be implemented. The implementation phase is not done all at once. It is a process that cumulatively leads to where the participant ultimately wants to be and achieve.

Among other factors, the report covers the following aspects of a person’s life:

Friends/ social support system
Membership in clubs/ societies
Spirituality/ values
Life goals/ legacy
Community involvement
Economic:  Education and training
Professional development
Financial matters
Creative expression/ innovation
Mental/ physical health

Each of these aspects needs a separate plan, which is aligned with other plans for the participant, as well as other plans that may affect them, such as those made by other limited partners with whom they have social or business agreements. Life plans may evolve as circumstances change.


Community’s focus on education

The community needs all limited partners, as an essential resource, to be at full employment always. This means developing and improving their skills through education. The community runs an education system that considers the importance of a formal, collaborative approach to education, and the independence of professors, teachers, and any other people who offer education as their stewardship. Each community runs a common education system that evolves to meet current and anticipated needs.

Classroom in Newvistas community

The Life Planning Agency facilitates and coordinates the education system. The agency, through district presidencies, ensures that there are sufficient educators and that they are sufficiently qualified. The agency also helps in connecting learners and teachers, through an automated system that also recommends where to go to for education, the rates, and the expected outcomes.

The most basic levels of education (kindergarten, nursery school, or childcare) are mainly carried out at the hub buildings. Here, the children are closer to home, and only need to walk a maximum of 200 meters (660 feet) to their class.((The longer the distance a student moves from home to school, the lower their academic performance is likely to be. A study in Germany found that long distances from home to school cause fatigue and kill concentration. The result is poor academic performance.)) Other levels of learning happen at the district buildings. Normally, every community will have an education system that includes elementary, middle, high school, and tertiary education.

The first three levels of education are harmonized across the communities, with slight deviations. The Life Planning Agency’s district presidents collect information on the efficacy of the current curriculum and make changes as necessary. The agency coordinates with teachers to ensure that they have the necessary skills to implement the curriculum.

The district presidency accredits teachers and other tutors based on pre-set criteria formulated by the executive presidency. The criterion includes, among others, the proficiency of teachers in the subjects they teach, experience, and any other factors that may affect their ability to do their job.

Organization of education

All education is private and run by limited partners who provide teaching services in collaboration. Limited partners are responsible for paying the fees for the dependents under their care.

The three levels of education – elementary, high school, and tertiary are all critical to the community’s success. Elementary and high school (kindergarten to grade 12, or K12) is compulsory for all the eligible participants. This education happens within the community’s physical campus. This way, students stay at home, where their parents or guardians can access and monitor them easily.

Students learn in three 45-minute sessions per day, for 5 days a week. Unlike conventional education systems where children have intensive learning sessions, punctuated by lengthy holidays, the community has a year-round academic calendar.

The 45-minute sessions focus on reading, writing, and math. In any of these sessions, other subjects can be taught. For instance, history, literature, religion, and cultural studies can either be writing or reading exercises. Math, on the other hand, can encompass physics, chemistry, and arithmetic. Once the sessions are over, no homework is carried out in class. Students are expected to complete all their work in the classroom within the 45-minute sessions.

Before a teacher admits a student to their class, they can ask that they seek a test to qualify. The test will examine the potential student’s capabilities and therefore know not only whether or not to admit them, but also how to teach them once they do join.

Over the course of study, teachers will administer exams to their students collaboratively and harmoniously. This is to avoid disjointed examinations and quality issues. The exam scores will appear in a student’s profile, at their permission. Displaying these results is beneficial if a student wants to sign an agreement with another limited partner, for instance, since each party can make informed decisions about the capabilities of the other. The integrity of the exams is monitored and enforced by the Life Planning Agency. It works through contractors who act as observers, and if necessary for other stakeholders, including examiners and invigilators.

Graduation NewVistas Community

Before joining a teacher’s class, a student agrees to a pay-per-lesson arrangement. The student deposits the fees for a specific term as the teacher may decide, such as. Month, quarter, or even year. After every lesson, the teacher’s account is auto-credited by the system, which receives and verifies attendance registers to ensure proper payment.

The system allows students to have ample time for extra-curricular activities. An optional 45-minute session is available every weekday for students to play games, learn skills such as playing guitar or the piano, or participate in club activities. Thereafter, students can go home, or work on setting up their businesses in readiness for being admitted as limited partners.

Once students have cleared the 12th grade, they are strongly encouraged to continue with their education to develop careers and enable the community to achieve a high level of the human development index.

Inter-community universities are organized the same way as learning within the community. The universities are collaborations between various professionals through facilitation from the Life Planning Agency. While universities are likely to have a large part of their operations being conducted virtually, where need be, a temporary physical campus can be organized in any of the district buildings or hubs.

Lifelong learning

While lifelong learning (LLL) can be deliberate or inadvertent, the community is keen to ensure deliberate, progressive lifelong learning. LLL can either be formal, nonformal, or informal.((Formal learning is programmed and leads to certification, such as a high school diploma or degree. Nonformal learning is also programmed but does not have any certification at the end of it. Informal learning takes place in the course of daily activities at home, at work, or during leisure.))

Hobbies NewVistas community

LLL is self-initiated by the learner, and voluntary. It can be instructed by another person, such as piano lessons, or be self-instructed, such as teaching yourself to cook a new dish. Normally, LLL is different from formal learning. However, a doctor can take law classes to understand some aspects of their work, and even come out of it with a certification.

LLL is an important way of self-development. Through LLL, people can achieve personal fulfillment and enhance their self-worth, while improving their quality of life. It can also make them more competitive in their business, ultimately leading to superior service provision for participants.

In the competitive and versatile environment of the community, it is necessary to update one’s skills constantly, so that one can stay ahead of the curve. Change is constant, meaning new things to learn all the time. It is never-ending. Whether it is reskilling, upskilling, or just personal development in an unrelated area to your skills, it is vital for the participant, and the community.

The Life Planning Agency facilitates LLL through a number of measures. The agency includes LLL achievements as an important part of a participant’s portfolio. This motivates them to not only constantly learn, but also do well. Learning is seen as a solid achievement, with the agency encouraging people to learn new skills and tackle new challenges.

The community is designed in a way that always motivates people to learn new things to serve an array of clients and work with new limited partners. Limited partners are encouraged to have at least three clients whom they work with simultaneously. This challenges people to continually learn so that they can have a wide range of skills within their profession. For instance, a teacher who specializes in math and physics can also learn some basic skills in computer engineering to better assist his clients and become more competitive.

Business Insurance

The Life Planning Agency insures participants’ businesses. Businesses take out insurance against select risks that may occasion loss, including fire, business disruption, and natural disasters. The agency uses data and analytics from the Risk Management and Underwriting Agency to determine the nature of risks they can insure and the applicable premiums.

The Life Planning Agency deposits premium payments with the Capital Bank, and receives an annuity for its investment. It uses this investment to improve its services, pay contractors, pay for any loans and return on investment to the Capital Bank, and cater for other operational costs.

The community is designed to eliminate or withstand many of the risks that can occasion financial loss. For instance, buildings are fire-proof and can withstand natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and storms. In addition, agencies work to minimize or eliminate business disruption that can result from a lack of supplies and bad debts. This is through the Business Operations Agency’s factoring services. As a result of the agency’s investment model regarding premiums, and the community’s design that minimizes the chances of claims, the agency provides insurance services at considerably lower prices.

How the agency works

ackground on presidencies

Every presidency in the community is a four-member entity whose members represent one of the four major demographics: married men (A), married women (B), single women (C), and single men (D). However, a president serves the whole community in their role, rather than only their own demographic. Presidents’ diversity and commitment to serve all is provided for in the community bylaws and ensures that all access services without any discrimination. These four major demographics are evenly split in ordinary society, with each group accounting for between 23 and 27% of the population, and with regular fluctuations as people’s status changes.

The community appreciates that discrimination across all social categories happens based on marital status, other social categorizations notwithstanding; married men are likelier to dominate other demographics, especially single men and single women. The community’s infrastructure promotes equal access to economic and social resources and opportunities.

The composition of the community as a whole and those who serve it in the community public service is closely monitored to prevent numerical domination, which can lead to nepotism or unequal access. Besides marital status, the recruitment to be a participant, and to serve in the public service carefully considers other social categorizations, to ensure racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual groups are well represented in the community as they are in the society in which a community operates.

These considerations inform the constitution of the community public service. The diversity in community public service, which is provided by bylaws, is aimed at creating a community that is blind to all other considerations besides service to participants. The service is therefore designed to be free of discrimination.

Executive presidency, bureau board, and demographic presidencies

The Life Planning Agency is served by an executive presidency which is responsible for shaping, monitoring, and adjusting the agency’s overall strategy and policies. The presidency also facilitates the setting up of the agency’s automated system and adjusts it as necessary to better achieve its goals.

As part of the District Bureau, the executive presidency forms a bureau board with executive presidencies serving the Health and Nutrition, and Recreation and Arts agencies. The board acts as a check and monitoring tool for individual presidents and agencies, especially when decisions have far-reaching implications for the community.

Within the bureau board, three presidents from the same demographic form a demographic presidency. There are four such presidencies in the bureau. The demographic presidency works on matters of common interest to a demographic, that cut across the three agencies. The demographic presidency also plays an important role in the mentorship and training of new presidents.

Demographic presidency ADemographic presidency BDemographic presidency CDemographic presidency D
Executive presidency, Health and Nutrition (4)4A4B4C4D
Executive presidency, Life Planning (5)5A5B5C5D
Executive presidency, Recreation and Arts (6)6A6B6C6D

District presidencies

Each of the 24 districts is served by three district presidencies. Each presidency in a district serves a specific agency in the District Bureau, such that there is a district presidency for Health and Nutrition, Life Planning, and Recreation and Arts. These district presidencies act as their agency’s operational presidencies. In this capacity, they implement the agency’s policies and strategies, as set by the executive presidency. They also report back to the executive presidency on issues that they deem need to be changed in the agency’s operations.

The three district presidencies that serve a district, each comprised of four presidents, come together to form a district board. The district board helps individual presidents in decision-making that impacts the whole district, mentorship, and orientation of incoming presidents. Three presidents on the board who serve the same demographic also form a demographic presidency. This is better illustrated in the table below, showing an example of District 1.

Married men (A)Married women (B)Single women (C)Single men (D)
District presidency, Health and Nutrition 1(4)A1(4)B1(4)C1(4)D
District presidency, Life Planning1(5)A1(5)B1(5)C1(5)D
District Presidency, Recreation, and Arts1(6)A1(6)B1(6)C1(6)D

Where: 1 – district number

  • – agency served

A – demographic group

Limited partners and branch presidencies

Limited partners and dependents

A limited partner is the basic unit in the community. A limited person, usually above 18 years old, but sometimes as young as 16, has been admitted into the community and has invested $20,000 as partnership interest, for which they earn a return. This is regarded as one unit of partnership interest.

Over time, a limited partner can add more units of partnership interest, as their business prospers. The more partnership interest units a limited partner has, the more the return they receive from the agency.

 A dependent is a minor, or a person living with a disability, under the care of a limited partner. In some instances, a dependent may be a fit adult, who for various reasons is supported by community agencies, and assigned by contract to a limited partner.  Limited partners are responsible for any legal agreements that their dependents enter into, either with community agencies or other participants.

Together, limited partners and dependents are referred to as participants. Participants who are dependents, because they are still minors, can start a business when they reach 12 years of age. This allows them to save up and invest $20,000 into the community by their 18th birthday, and possibly as early as 16.

Limited partners and their dependents reside in apartments (village buildings). Each apartment has 4 floors, with each floor containing 16 apartments. Each floor has floor has 7 – 12 limited partners, with each limited partner having 1 – 3 dependents. Each floor therefore has around 25 residents. With four floors, each building has approximately 100 residents. An apartment building also forms a branch.

Group councils and branch presidencies

 Of the approximately 100 residents in a branch, around 40 of them are limited partners. Each group has around 10 limited partners and forms a group council. A group council is diverse, containing different social groups that are reflective of the society within which a community operates.

Additionally, a group contains members of the four main demographics: married men (A), married women (B), single women (C), and single men (D). The council meets at least quarterly and provides limited partners with a platform to interact and discuss common interest matters to their demographic within their branch. One of the members of the group council serves the group as a captain.

Four captains who serve the four groups in an apartment building (branch) form a branch presidency. A branch presidency’s membership is drawn from the four main demographics, for the purposes of representation.

Captains are responsible for recruiting limited partners into the community through their council and by extension, branch. A captain does not recruit limited partners only from their demographic. Instead, they work to ensure that their recruits are diverse, considering social categorizations, gender, and social status, in addition to demographic groups.

Captains work in concert with their fellow captains in the branch presidency, and other presidencies in a village and district to ensure that the district is as diverse as possible. They are guided by present data on how diverse their district, village, and branch are, and what needs to be focused on to improve. They are also guided by community bylaws, which expressly require diversity as shown by demographic data about a population from which the community intends to recruit limited partners.

Branch numbering
Numbering system for branches

The captain serves as a service extension of the Human Relations Agency, though they also act as an interface between participants and other community agencies. For agencies that do not have operational presidencies, such as agencies in the Economic and Public Administration Bureaus, captains come in handy in helping participants navigate the agency’s automated system and other relevant tools used by the agency to deliver services.

10 branches form a village. Each of the branch presidencies also belongs to a specific branch board. Branch boards provide an additional check and balance for captains and branch presidencies. Branches are numbered based on the village’s hub, in the direction of the breezeway one-way traffic direction.

A hub is formed at the intersection of breezeways between villages. Hub buildings are used for a range of commercial activities that need to be closer to residential areas, such as daycare centers, grocery stores, and emergency centers, among others.

A branch’s number determines with whom its presidency will form a branch board. Branch presidencies 1, 2, and 3 form one branch board, as do 4, 5, and 6, and 7, 8, and 9.

Four villages make a district. The last branch presidency in each village in the community (branch presidency 10) combines with three others in their district or cluster of 3 districts to form additional branch boards. The last branch presidencies in villages 1, 2, and 3 in each district make a board. The last branch presidencies in village 4 of each of the 3 districts in a cluster also form a board.

This can be illustrated as follows:

Branch presidencies and boards

Besides belonging to a branch presidency and a board, every captain belongs to a demographic presidency of 3. A demographic presidency is made up of 3 captains within a board, and who serve the same demographic. The demographic presidency mainly serves an advisory function, safeguarding issues common to the particular demographic, and helping in mentorship and support for incoming captains.

The automated system is designed to help participants with all the help they need in matters related to various agencies. However, should they run into problems, captains assist them in navigating the system, or direct them to relevant contractors who help them at a fee.

Automated system

For most of its duties, especially those that involve interaction with participants, the Life Planning Agency is assisted by an automated system. Such tasks include the search for contractors to set up insurance systems, design and operationalize the automated system and act as a liaison to facilitate curriculum development and schools’ organization, among other duties. The automated system is designed to minimize human interference in some roles, and thereby eliminate human error and nepotism.

The system also leverages the information that the community handles, through big data computing and other means to aid in decision-making. The system helps the agency in the collection of various fees charged by the agency for its services, among other tasks that can easily be automated.


The Life Planning Agency extensively works with contractors to perform some tasks. These include those that the automated system cannot handle, or in instances where participants need assistance in navigating the automated system.

Contractors also set up the automated system and help in drafting policies and strategies. Contractors also play a central role in preparing training modules, and in instances where the agency needs to proactively engage participants, such as training on the importance of lifelong learning, business insurance, and life planning.  

Inter-agency cooperation

The 24 community agencies form three columns of 8 agencies each. There is loose collaboration between the agencies in a column. The Life Planning Agency is part of the second column.

The Life Planning Agency collaborates with the Capital Bank (agency 8) to invest in premiums that businesses pay for insurance. The Capital Bank provides initial capital that the agency uses to set up its operations, and any loans that it may need in the process. These loans are also provided by the Capital Bank.

The Data and Publishing Agency (agency 17) assists the Life Planning Agency with analytics that participants need in life planning. Agency 17 can combine data from different agencies, which the Life Planning Agency uses to help participants chart a successful path in the community.

Agencies arrangement
The 24 agencies are organized in rows and columns. Beyond working in their bureau (row), agencies also interact extensively within their column. An overview with links to the 12 agencies in the Human and Financial Capital Department is here, and an overview with links to the 12 agencies in the Process and Property Department is here. A more detailed version of this graphic with some historic background is posted here.

Presidencies’ offices, meetings, and quarterly conferences


The Life Planning Agency’s executive presidency has offices in District Building 5’s first floor, on the western side. Facing them on the eastern side are the offices for trustee presidency and Regulatory Bureau’s operational presidency serving the agency and District 5.

Trustees and the regulatory operational presidencies alternate their offices. Trustees have the offices in building 5 on Mondays and Wednesdays, while the operational presidencies use the offices on Tuesdays and Thursdays, as shown in this timetable:

Building 5/ Life PlanningBuilding 17/ Data and Publishing
MondayTrustee presidencyRegulatory Bureau Operational presidency
TuesdayRegulatory Bureau Operational presidencyTrustee presidency
WednesdayTrustee presidencyRegulatory Bureau Operational presidency
ThursdayRegulatory Bureau Operational presidencyTrustee presidency

The first floor’s layout is as follows, including other public servants who serve District 5.

District building first floor offices

Working hours and meetings

All community public servants work from Monday to Thursday, from 8:00 to 8:45 in the morning. The Life Planning Agency’s executive presidency uses this time to interact with other public servants and in some instances, contractors. On Thursday, each presidency (four presidents serving A, B, C, and D) meets for a 45-minute meeting from 9:00 to 9:45 in the morning.

On the last Friday of each quarter, between 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM, each demographic presidency meets. The three-member presidency discusses common bureau matters that are of interest to the demographic they serve. On Saturday, again between 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM, the whole board meets, where the presidents present their input from the previous day’s demographic presidency meeting, and prepare for the quarterly conference. The aim is to have a cohesive presentation during the quarterly conference but tailored to specific demographic interests.

Quarterly conferences

Quarterly conferences are held on the last Sunday of each quarter, from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM, with a lunch break in between. During quarterly conferences, each demographic presidency sits together in the same row.

Quarterly conferences are held in District Buildings 5 and 17. Each building has a lower and higher assembly court. The different demographic groups use the assembly courts as follows:

BuildingAssembly courtDemographic
5Lower courtMarried men (A)
5Higher courtMarried Women (B)
17Lower courtSingle women (C)
17Higher courtSingle men (D)

Branch presidencies do not attend quarterly conferences. Instead, they follow the relevant proceedings online alongside other participants.

Each of the four assembly courts has seats for 480 presidents representing the respective demographic. In the diagram below each of the 4 courts is illustrated. The ceiling of each court has an elliptical arch that enables executive presidents, who are the only ones who make a presentation during the conference, to speak without the need to amplify their voices. The 480 seats are easily rotatable to enable presidents to face whoever is speaking.

Conference hall seats

Each of the four courts has an identical arrangement and number of seats. The exact arrangement of each court can therefore be illustrated using one court, in this case, building 5’s lower court that is used by married men (A).

Assembly hall seating

Within an assembly court, the 480 presidents are arranged in terms of demographic presidencies of 3. The District Bureau’s demographic presidency for married men (4A, 5A, and 6A) sits in the highlighted seats. Various district demographic presidencies also sit on the same row as indicated.

Demographic presidencies seating
Representations of hierarchical- and matrix-type organizations.
The structure of a hierarchical-type organization is shown on the left, and that of a matrix-type organization is shown on the right.

Some additional notes/definitions from an earlier version of this page:

  • By giving participants the opportunity to develop their careers through academic advancement and professional certification, the community will enable them develop more realistic career goals. This is also important for participant satisfaction in the community, when it is assumed that increased learning will give them a better chance to exploit the opportunities offered by the system (BerkeleyHuman Resources. Berkeley: University of California – Berkeley, 2018).
  • Whereas up to 99% of people in the West, Asia, and Latin America have some reading and writing ability, more than 20% are functionally illiterate, meaning that their reading and writing skills are inadequate in working and carrying out daily chores. Life Planning Agency aims to eliminate functional illiteracy.
  • The dossier which the system will generate for the participant will be in some respects similar to automated personality tests. The tests are currently used by companies to better understand their employees’ needs, and enable them plan their careers better. However, they do not have the emotional intelligence required to carry out accurate assessments. In the community, this might require the district president’s intervention to be fully practical (Morgeson, F., et al. “Reconsidering the Use of Personality Tests in Personnel Selection Contexts.” Personnel Psychology 60 (2007): 683–729).
  • Beyond the profit and legal requirements for insurance to exist, the service also serves as a safety net. Insurance helps protect society from dramatic loss that would effectively prevent the sufferer from ever recovering. An example is given of families which, though they live a decent middle class life in a developing country, are pushed back into poverty by a medical emergency, for instance (Olson, D. Insurance as a Social Good. 09 11 2016. 17 06 2019).
  • The insurance policy will need to change to reflect changing health prospects in participants. This will help the community deal with the rising healthcare costs, while continuing to offer the participants the appropriate healthcare cover needed. Inversely, those who have better health prospects are expected to pay less, since their chances of falling ill are less (Rezayatmand, R. “Patient Payment and Unhealthy Behavior: A Comparison across European Countries.” Biomed research International (2017): published online).
  • The community will doubtlessly attract people from different backgrounds, who are expected to live and work together. The use of art as a cultural exchange tool cannot be understated. The Life Planning Agency will look to promote interaction with art, even in instances where the participants involved have other stewardships (Brault, S. Determined to Increase the Impact of the Arts on Society. 17 01 2017. 16 06 2019).
  • Accreditation works as a quality assurance measure. The party being accredited is also able to use the certification as a marketing advantage. Assuming that the Life Planning Agency will partner with other accreditation bodies for uniformity, the service will give community businesses with accreditation international recognition needed to boost its reputation (IAS. Why Accreditation? 2019. 17 06 2019).
  • It is important to give education stakeholders the chance to have their say when developing curricula and education standards. This enables them to own the process, and have more motivation in improving it to meet their needs. A public participation exercise in the community will bring together the stakeholders. It will give them the additional advantage of being on the same level, that is, there will be no overriding voice, but rather, a consensus-building exercise to forge the best way forward (Young, J. “Teacher participation in curriculum development: What status does it have?” Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 3.2 (1988): 109-121).